Feb 05, 2014

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We have  put our mechanics through a Hybrid course and they are now able to service and repair your Hybrid vehicle.


Safety is paramount when working on these cars due to the size of the battery and the

voltage that it holds.

Currently on the market there are over 30 differing types of Electric Vehicles

available in the UK. Hybrid vehicles lead the way with 4.5 million units sold

worldwide; all other Electrical Vehicle variants sold 109531 worldwide up to

March 2012.

Hybrid Cars use a rechargeable energy storage system to supplement fossil fuel energy

for vehicle propulsion. Hybrid engines are smaller and more efficient than traditional

fuel engines. Some hybrid vehicles use regenerative braking to generate electricity while

travelling. The term “Hybrid Vehicle” can also refer to a vehicle engine that uses a

combination of different fuels such as petroleum and ethanol. Electric vehicles come in all

shapes and sizes, with different applications to power the vehicles propulsion, using

either pure electric motors, a combination

of In Car Engine systems (ICE) or a combination of both.

There are 2 typical Hybrid layouts which refer to the Generator/Motor and

In Car Engine (ICE) and how propulsion is achieved.

The Parallel Hybrid System:

With the parallel hybrid system, both the engine and the electric motor turn the

transmission at the same time and the transmission then turns the wheels. With a

parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the internal combustion engine provide

propulsion power. Therefore drive comes from parallel sources.

Series Parallel Hybrid System:

However, the latest trend is to combine both systems in what is called the Series Parallel

Hybrid System. With this, it is possible to drive the wheels using either the dual sources

of power (electric motors and/or internal combustion engine), as well as generating

electricity while running on the electric motors. The system runs the car on power from

the electric motors only, or by using both the internal combustion engine and the electric

motors together, depending on the driving conditions. Since the generator is integrated

into the system, the battery can be charged while the car is running.

High Voltage (HV) Battery

Hybrid and Pure Electrical Vehicles have similar dangers in that they have High Voltage

Batteries and a typical layout of components. Hybrids and Electric Vehicles use 2 types of

High Voltage batteries. Predominantly Nickel Metal Hydride has been used but Lithium-

ion is in use in Pure-Electric Vehicles. The batteries are made of of Modules which in turn

are made up of Cells.

Nickel Metal Hydride

Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries lose efficiency with heat. Cooling fans are essential

to prevent the battery packs from over heating.

Lithium-ion Battery

Lithium-ion batteries require precise voltage control when charging because if too high

they become damaged, if too low they will be under charged. Light weight construction

make them good for future EV’s but production is very expensive.

High Voltage Generator / Motor

Hybrid vehicles use Motor / Generators and an ICE for drive and propulsion controlled

by an PCU OR ECU situated between the gearbox and ICE. It acts as a motor for

propulsion and a generator when ICE is in operation producing 3 phase AC Voltage.

It is only 45.5 mm in width brushless, so very reliable brushless system with no contact

moving parts.

Synchronous A/C Motors

Synchronous A/C motors are used, which can efficiently produce strong torque at low

speeds. They are also compact, light-weight and very efficient, resulting in smoother

starting and acceleration. The motors are 3-phase A/C and utilise permanent rotor

magnets positioned in the ideal V-figure configuration. Most require a High Voltage

supply, 250/300-Volts and provide an output of 50 KW power with 400 Nm of torque.

Most modern Hybrids propel the vehicle from standstill up to around 30 MPH by using

the drive of the Electric motor alone.

High Voltage Inverter

The Inverter assembly can be known as Inverter / Converter or PCU (Power Control

Unit) consisting of an inverter, a Voltage-Boosting Converter and an AC/DC converter to

run the car on electric motors. It converts DC Voltage supplied by the battery or voltage-

boosting converter to AC in order to turn the electric motors. It also converts AC

generated by the generator into DC to recharge the battery.

The voltage-boosting converter progressively increases the normal 200-Volts DC battery

supply voltage to a maximum of 650-Volts DC to feed both the electric motors and the

generator. This means more power can be generated from a small current to bring out

high performance from the high output motors, enhancing overall system efficiency.

The DC/DC converter steps down the 200-Volts DC supply voltage from the battery to 12

Volts DC, to be used by ancillary systems and electronic devices like the ECU.

High Voltage Capacitors

The Inverter / PCU contains High Voltage Capacitors which store Electrical Charge 400

Volts 100 Amps. Capacitors hold charge / Voltage for up to 5 minutes.

Possible Fatal Electrocution.

High Voltage cables

High voltage cable regardless of size is coloured Bright Orange as a warning that it has

the potential to carry extremely dangerous voltage. This is an industry standard across all

Hybrids and Electrical vehicles.

Category: Hybrid

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