WE ARE HERE FOR YOUR HYBRID VEHICLES
We have put our mechanics through a Hybrid course and they are now able to service and repair your Hybrid vehicle.
Safety is paramount when working on these cars due to the size of the battery and the
voltage that it holds.
Currently on the market there are over 30 differing types of Electric Vehicles
available in the UK. Hybrid vehicles lead the way with 4.5 million units sold
worldwide; all other Electrical Vehicle variants sold 109531 worldwide up to
Hybrid Cars use a rechargeable energy storage system to supplement fossil fuel energy
for vehicle propulsion. Hybrid engines are smaller and more efficient than traditional
fuel engines. Some hybrid vehicles use regenerative braking to generate electricity while
travelling. The term “Hybrid Vehicle” can also refer to a vehicle engine that uses a
combination of different fuels such as petroleum and ethanol. Electric vehicles come in all
shapes and sizes, with different applications to power the vehicles propulsion, using
either pure electric motors, a combination
of In Car Engine systems (ICE) or a combination of both.
There are 2 typical Hybrid layouts which refer to the Generator/Motor and
In Car Engine (ICE) and how propulsion is achieved.
The Parallel Hybrid System:
With the parallel hybrid system, both the engine and the electric motor turn the
transmission at the same time and the transmission then turns the wheels. With a
parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the internal combustion engine provide
propulsion power. Therefore drive comes from parallel sources.
Series Parallel Hybrid System:
However, the latest trend is to combine both systems in what is called the Series Parallel
Hybrid System. With this, it is possible to drive the wheels using either the dual sources
of power (electric motors and/or internal combustion engine), as well as generating
electricity while running on the electric motors. The system runs the car on power from
the electric motors only, or by using both the internal combustion engine and the electric
motors together, depending on the driving conditions. Since the generator is integrated
into the system, the battery can be charged while the car is running.
High Voltage (HV) Battery
Hybrid and Pure Electrical Vehicles have similar dangers in that they have High Voltage
Batteries and a typical layout of components. Hybrids and Electric Vehicles use 2 types of
High Voltage batteries. Predominantly Nickel Metal Hydride has been used but Lithium-
ion is in use in Pure-Electric Vehicles. The batteries are made of of Modules which in turn
are made up of Cells.
Nickel Metal Hydride
Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries lose efficiency with heat. Cooling fans are essential
to prevent the battery packs from over heating.
Lithium-ion batteries require precise voltage control when charging because if too high
they become damaged, if too low they will be under charged. Light weight construction
make them good for future EV’s but production is very expensive.
High Voltage Generator / Motor
Hybrid vehicles use Motor / Generators and an ICE for drive and propulsion controlled
by an PCU OR ECU situated between the gearbox and ICE. It acts as a motor for
propulsion and a generator when ICE is in operation producing 3 phase AC Voltage.
It is only 45.5 mm in width brushless, so very reliable brushless system with no contact
Synchronous A/C Motors
Synchronous A/C motors are used, which can efficiently produce strong torque at low
speeds. They are also compact, light-weight and very efficient, resulting in smoother
starting and acceleration. The motors are 3-phase A/C and utilise permanent rotor
magnets positioned in the ideal V-figure configuration. Most require a High Voltage
supply, 250/300-Volts and provide an output of 50 KW power with 400 Nm of torque.
Most modern Hybrids propel the vehicle from standstill up to around 30 MPH by using
the drive of the Electric motor alone.
High Voltage Inverter
The Inverter assembly can be known as Inverter / Converter or PCU (Power Control
Unit) consisting of an inverter, a Voltage-Boosting Converter and an AC/DC converter to
run the car on electric motors. It converts DC Voltage supplied by the battery or voltage-
boosting converter to AC in order to turn the electric motors. It also converts AC
generated by the generator into DC to recharge the battery.
The voltage-boosting converter progressively increases the normal 200-Volts DC battery
supply voltage to a maximum of 650-Volts DC to feed both the electric motors and the
generator. This means more power can be generated from a small current to bring out
high performance from the high output motors, enhancing overall system efficiency.
The DC/DC converter steps down the 200-Volts DC supply voltage from the battery to 12
Volts DC, to be used by ancillary systems and electronic devices like the ECU.
High Voltage Capacitors
The Inverter / PCU contains High Voltage Capacitors which store Electrical Charge 400
Volts 100 Amps. Capacitors hold charge / Voltage for up to 5 minutes.
Possible Fatal Electrocution.
High Voltage cables
High voltage cable regardless of size is coloured Bright Orange as a warning that it has
the potential to carry extremely dangerous voltage. This is an industry standard across all
Hybrids and Electrical vehicles.